基于php双引号中访问数组元素报错的解决方法

最近在做微信公众号开发,在一个发送图文接口中,需要把数组元素拼接在XML字符串中

foreach ($itemArr as $key => $value){ 
  $items .= "<item> 
  <Title><![CDATA[$value['title']]]></Title>  
  <Description><![CDATA[[$value['description']]]></Description> 
  <PicUrl><![CDATA[$value['picUrl']]]></PicUrl> 
  <Url><![CDATA[$value['url']]]></Url> 
  </item>"; 
} 

结果竟报如下错误信息:

Parse error: syntax error, unexpected '' (T_ENCAPSED_AND_WHITESPACE), expecting identifier (T_STRING) or variable (T_VARIABLE) or number (T_NUM_STRING) in D:\hhp\wamp\www\weixin\wx_sample.php on line 146

从错误信息看是单引号的问题,果断去掉之后就没报错了。然而我就纳闷了,引用下标为字符串的数组元素难道不该加引号吗?到php官方手册去查了关于数组的描述,有一段是这样的:

$arr = array('fruit' => 'apple', 'veggie' => 'carrot'); 
// This will not work, and will result in a parse error, such as: 
// Parse error: parse error, expecting T_STRING' or T_VARIABLE' or T_NUM_STRING' 
// This of course applies to using superglobals in strings as well 
print "Hello $arr['fruit']"; 
print "Hello $_GET['foo']"; 

这里给出了两种错误的写法,当一个普通数组变量或超全局数组变量包含在双引号中时,引用索引为字符串的数组元素,索引字符串不应该再添加单引号。那正确的写法是怎样的呢?于是我继续查找官方手册,找到如下说法:

$arr = array('fruit' => 'apple', 'veggie' => 'carrot');

// This defines a constant to demonstrate what's going on. The value 'veggie'
// is assigned to a constant named fruit.
define('fruit', 'veggie');

// The following is okay, as it's inside a string. Constants are not looked for// within strings, so no E_NOTICE occurs hereprint "Hello $arr[fruit]";   // Hello apple// With one exception: braces surrounding arrays within strings allows constants// to be interpretedprint "Hello {$arr[fruit]}";  // Hello carrotprint "Hello {$arr['fruit']}"; // Hello apple

$arr = array('fruit' => 'apple', 'veggie' => 'carrot');

// This defines a constant to demonstrate what's going on. The value 'veggie'
// is assigned to a constant named fruit.
define('fruit', 'veggie');

// The following is okay, as it's inside a string. Constants are not looked for
// within strings, so no E_NOTICE occurs here
print "Hello $arr[fruit]";   // Hello apple

// With one exception: braces surrounding arrays within strings allows constants
// to be interpreted
print "Hello {$arr[fruit]}";  // Hello carrot
print "Hello {$arr['fruit']}"; // Hello apple

这里给出了三种正确的写法:

第一种写法索引字符串不添加任何引号,此时表示获取索引为字符串fruit的数组元素,输出apple。

第二种写法索引字符串也没有添加任何引号,同时将数组变量用一对花括号{ }给包了起来,此时fruit实际上表示一个常量,而不是一个字符串,因此表示获取索引为fruit常量值的数组元素,常量fruit的值是veggie,所以输出carrot。

第三种写法是引用字符串不但添加了单引号,同时也将数组变量用一对花括号{ }给包了起来,此时表示获取索引为字符串fruit的数组元素,输出apple。

后来我继续查找,发现这样一段代码:

// Incorrect. This works but also throws a PHP error of level E_NOTICE because 
// of an undefined constant named fruit 
//  
// Notice: Use of undefined constant fruit - assumed 'fruit' in... 
print $arr[fruit];  // apple 
<pre name="code" class="php">print $arr['fruit']; // apple 
// This defines a constant to demonstrate what's going on. The value 'veggie'// is assigned to a constant named fruit.define('fruit', 'veggie');// Notice the difference nowprint $arr[fruit]; // carrot

print $arr['fruit']; // apple 

在正常情况下,数组变量没有被双引号包围时,是否给索引字符串加上单引号输出结果都一致时apple,但是当定义一个与索引字符串fruit同名的常量时,未加单引号的索引字符串输出结果就成了carrot,而加上单引号还是apple。

结论:

1. 数组变量未用双引号包括时,

(1) 索引字符串加单引号表示字符串本身

<pre name="code" class="php">$arr['fruit'] 

(2)索引字符串未加单引号表示常量,当常量未定义时则解析为字符串,等效于加上单引号。

$arr[fruit] 

2. 数组变量用双引号包括时,

(1) 索引字符串不加单引号表示字符串本身

"$arr[fruit]" 

(2) 数组变量加上花括号表示与字符串同名常量

"{$arr[fruit]}" 

(3) 索引字符串加上单引号且数组变量加上花括号表示字符串本身

<pre name="code" class="php"><pre name="code" class="php">"{$arr['fruit']}" 

(4) 索引字符串加上单引号且数组变量未加上花括号,为错误写法,报错:Parse error: parse error, expecting T_STRING' or T_VARIABLE' or T_NUM_STRING'

<pre name="code" class="php"><pre name="code" class="php">"$arr['fruit']" 

附:php手册数组说明URL

http://php.net/manual/zh/language.types.array.php

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