Spring Boot 文件上传原理解析

首先我们要知道什么是Spring Boot,这里简单说一下,Spring Boot可以看作是一个框架中的框架--->集成了各种框架,像security、jpa、data、cloud等等,它无须关心配置可以快速启动开发,有兴趣可以了解下自动化配置实现原理,本质上是 spring 4.0的条件化配置实现,深抛下注解,就会看到了。

  说Spring Boot 文件上传原理 其实就是Spring MVC,因为这部分工作是Spring MVC做的而不是Spring Boot,那么,SpringMVC又是怎么处理文件上传这个过程的呢?

  图:

  首先项目启动相关配置,再执行上述第二步的时候 DispatcherServlet会去查找id为multipartResolver的Bean,在配置中看到Bean指向的是CommonsMultipartResolve,其中实现了MultipartResolver接口。

  第四步骤这里会判断是否multipart文件即isMultipart方法,返回true:就会调用 multipartResolver 方法,传递HttpServletRequest会返回一个MultipartHttpServletRequest对象,再有DispatcherServlet进行处理到Controller层;返回false:会忽略掉,继续传递HttpServletRequest。

  在MVC中需要在配置文件webApplicationContext.xml中配置 如下:

  <bean id="multipartResolver" class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
      <property name="defaultEncoding" value="UTF-8"/>
      <property name="maxUploadSize" value="100000000"/>
      <property name="uploadTempDir" value="fileUpload/temp"/>
  </bean>

  而Spring Boot已经自动配置好,直接用就行,做个test没什么问题。有默认的上传限制大小,不过在实际开发中我们还是做一些配置的,

如下在application.properties中:

# multipart config
#默认支持文件上传
spring.http.multipart.enabled=true
#文件上传目录
spring.http.multipart.location=/tmp/xunwu/images/
#最大支持文件大小
spring.http.multipart.max-file-size=4Mb
#最大支持请求大小
spring.http.multipart.max-request-size=20MB

当然也可以写配置类来实现,具体的就不做展示了。

  看完上述你肯定有个大概的了解了,这里再孪拢Spring提供Multipart的解析器:MultipartResolver,上述说的是CommonsMultipartResolver,它是基于Commons File Upload第三方来实现,这也是在Servlet3.0之前的东西,3.0+之后也可以不需要依赖第三方库,可以用StandardServletMultipartResolver,同样也是实现了MultipartResolver接口,我们可以看下它的实现:

* Copyright 2002-2017 the original author or authors.
package org.springframework.web.multipart.support;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.Part;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartException;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartHttpServletRequest;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartResolver;
/**
 * Standard implementation of the {@link MultipartResolver} interface,
 * based on the Servlet 3.0 {@link javax.servlet.http.Part} API.
 * To be added as "multipartResolver" bean to a Spring DispatcherServlet context,
 * without any extra configuration at the bean level (see below).
 *
 * <p><b>Note:</b> In order to use Servlet 3.0 based multipart parsing,
 * you need to mark the affected servlet with a "multipart-config" section in
 * {@code web.xml}, or with a {@link javax.servlet.MultipartConfigElement}
 * in programmatic servlet registration, or (in case of a custom servlet class)
 * possibly with a {@link javax.servlet.annotation.MultipartConfig} annotation
 * on your servlet class. Configuration settings such as maximum sizes or
 * storage locations need to be applied at that servlet registration level;
 * Servlet 3.0 does not allow for them to be set at the MultipartResolver level.
 *
 * @author Juergen Hoeller
 * @since 3.1
 * @see #setResolveLazily
 * @see HttpServletRequest#getParts()
 * @see org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver
 */
public class StandardServletMultipartResolver implements MultipartResolver {
  private boolean resolveLazily = false;
  /**
   * Set whether to resolve the multipart request lazily at the time of
   * file or parameter access.
   * <p>Default is "false", resolving the multipart elements immediately, throwing
   * corresponding exceptions at the time of the {@link #resolveMultipart} call.
   * Switch this to "true" for lazy multipart parsing, throwing parse exceptions
   * once the application attempts to obtain multipart files or parameters.
   */
  public void setResolveLazily(boolean resolveLazily) {
    this.resolveLazily = resolveLazily;
  }
  @Override
  public boolean isMultipart(HttpServletRequest request) {
    // Same check as in Commons FileUpload...
    if (!"post".equals(request.getMethod().toLowerCase())) {
      return false;
    }
    String contentType = request.getContentType();
    return (contentType != null && contentType.toLowerCase().startsWith("multipart/"));
  }
  @Override
  public MultipartHttpServletRequest resolveMultipart(HttpServletRequest request) throws MultipartException {
    return new StandardMultipartHttpServletRequest(request, this.resolveLazily);
  }
  @Override
  public void cleanupMultipart(MultipartHttpServletRequest request) {
    // To be on the safe side: explicitly delete the parts,
    // but only actual file parts (for Resin compatibility)
    try {
      for (Part part : request.getParts()) {
        if (request.getFile(part.getName()) != null) {
          part.delete();
        }
      }
    }
    catch (Throwable ex) {
      LogFactory.getLog(getClass()).warn("Failed to perform cleanup of multipart items", ex);
    }
  }
}

这里是之前写的test的后者实现配置类,可以简单看下,作为了解:

package com.bj.config;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.ConditionalOnMissingBean;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.MultipartProperties;
import org.springframework.boot.context.properties.EnableConfigurationProperties;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartResolver;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.support.StandardServletMultipartResolver;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet;
import javax.servlet.MultipartConfigElement;
@Configuration
@EnableConfigurationProperties(MultipartProperties.class)
public class FileUploadConfig {
  private final MultipartProperties multipartProperties;
  public FileUploadConfig(MultipartProperties multipartProperties){
    this.multipartProperties=multipartProperties;
  }
  /**
   * 注册解析器
   * @return
   */
  @Bean(name= DispatcherServlet.MULTIPART_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME)
  @ConditionalOnMissingBean(MultipartResolver.class)
  public StandardServletMultipartResolver multipartResolver(){
    StandardServletMultipartResolver multipartResolver = new StandardServletMultipartResolver();
    multipartResolver.setResolveLazily(multipartProperties.isResolveLazily());
    return multipartResolver;
  }
  /**
   * 上传配置
   * @return
   */
  @Bean
  @ConditionalOnMissingBean
  public MultipartConfigElement multipartConfigElement(){
    return this.multipartProperties.createMultipartConfig();
  }
}

总结

以上所述是小编给大家介绍的Spring Boot 文件上传原理解析,希望对大家有所帮助,如果大家有任何疑问请给我留言,小编会及时回复大家的。在此也非常感谢大家对编程小技巧网站的支持!

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