200行代码实现blockchain 区块链实例详解

了解blockchain的概念很简单(区块链,交易链块):它是分布式的(即不是放置在同一台机器上,不同的网络设备上的)数据库支持主办记录日益增长的名单。但是,这也是容易混淆blockchain与我们试图帮他解决了目标 - 在人们心中的那一刻,这个词是相当强烈的交易,合同或智能cryptocurrency的概念有关。

只有在这里blockchain - 是不是一回事比特币,并理解链块的基本知识比它似乎更容易,尤其是在,它是基于源代码的情况下。在本文中,我们提出了建立与在JavaScript中200行代码的简单模型。这个项目,我们称之为NaiveChain的源代码,可以在GitHub上找到。第1部分和第2部分:如果您需要刷上它的功能,使用我们的备忘单,我们将使用标准的ECMAScript 6。
块结构

第一步 - 确定应包含块的元素。为简单起见,我们只包括最必要的:先前块的指数(指数),时间标记(时间戳),数据(数据),散列和散列,要录制,以保持电路的结构完整性。

class Block { 
  constructor(index, previousHash, timestamp, data, hash) { 
    this.index = index; 
    this.previousHash = previousHash.toString(); 
    this.timestamp = timestamp; 
    this.data = data; 
    this.hash = hash.toString(); 
  } 
}

 散列单元

哈希块需要保持数据的完整性。在我们的例子,这适用于算法SHA-256。这种类型的散列是不相关的开采,因为在这种情况下,我们并没有用表现证明实施保护。

var calculateHash = (index, previousHash, timestamp, data) => { 
  return CryptoJS.SHA256(index + previousHash + timestamp + data).toString(); 
}; 

产生单元

要生成块,我们需要知道前一个块的哈希,使我们在结构已经确定了元素的其余部分。数据由最终用户提供。

var generateNextBlock = (blockData) => { 
  var previousBlock = getLatestBlock(); 
  var nextIndex = previousBlock.index + 1; 
  var nextTimestamp = new Date().getTime() / 1000; 
  var nextHash = calculateHash(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData); 
  return new Block(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData, nextHash); 
}; 

存储单元

使用blockchain 存储阵列。第一个块总是硬编码“创世纪块”。

var getGenesisBlock = () => { 
  return new Block(0, "0", 1465154705, "my genesis block!!", "816534932c2b7154836da6afc367695e6337db8a921823784c14378abed4f7d7"); 
}; 
var blockchain = [getGenesisBlock()]; 

确认块的完整性

我们必须始终能够确认单元或电路的完整性。尤其是当你从其他单位新的单位,必须决定是否接受它们。

var isValidNewBlock = (newBlock, previousBlock) => { 
  if (previousBlock.index + 1 !== newBlock.index) { 
    console.log('invalid index'); 
    return false; 
  } else if (previousBlock.hash !== newBlock.previousHash) { 
    console.log('invalid previoushash'); 
    return false; 
  } else if (calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) !== newBlock.hash) { 
    console.log(typeof (newBlock.hash) + ' ' + typeof calculateHashForBlock(newBlock)); 
    console.log('invalid hash: ' + calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) + ' ' + newBlock.hash); 
    return false; 
  } 
  return true; 
}; 

选择链最长的

在电路块的顺序必须被明确指定,但是在发生冲突的情况下(例如,两个节点同时在同一生成的块和相同数量),我们选择电路,其中包含的块的数量较多。

var replaceChain = (newBlocks) => { 
  if (isValidChain(newBlocks) && newBlocks.length > blockchain.length) { 
    console.log('Received blockchain is valid. Replacing current blockchain with received blockchain'); 
    blockchain = newBlocks; 
    broadcast(responseLatestMsg()); 
  } else { 
    console.log('Received blockchain invalid'); 
  } 
}; 

消息到其它网络节点

该网站的一个组成部分 - 与其他节点的数据交换。下列规则用于维护网络同步:
当一个节点产生新的单元,它会报告给网络;
当本机连接到新的盛宴,他要求有关最后生成的块信息;
当一个节点正面临着一个块,其中有一个指标比他还大,他增加了一个块到电路或请求的完整链条的信息。
自动搜索同龄人不执行,所有环节都手动添加。

单元的控制

用户应该能够以某种方式控制节点,通过将HTTP服务器解决。当与节点相互作用有以下功能:
打印所有单元的列表;
创建用户生成内容的新单元;
打印列表,或添加的节日。
互动的最直接的方式 - 通过卷曲:

一个节点上的所有块#名单

curl http://localhost:3001/blocks

架构

值得注意的是,该网站是指两个Web服务器:HTTP进行用户控制的装置和向所述的WebSocket HTTP来安装节点之间的P2P连接。

如下为js 200行代码

<span style="font-family:Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;">'use strict';</span> 
var CryptoJS = require("crypto-js"); 
var express = require("express"); 
var bodyParser = require('body-parser'); 
var WebSocket = require("ws"); 
var http_port = process.env.HTTP_PORT || 3001; 
var p2p_port = process.env.P2P_PORT || 6001; 
var initialPeers = process.env.PEERS ? process.env.PEERS.split(',') : []; 
class Block { 
  constructor(index, previousHash, timestamp, data, hash) { 
    this.index = index; 
    this.previousHash = previousHash.toString(); 
    this.timestamp = timestamp; 
    this.data = data; 
    this.hash = hash.toString(); 
  } 
} 
var sockets = []; 
var MessageType = { 
  QUERY_LATEST: 0, 
  QUERY_ALL: 1, 
  RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN: 2 
}; 
var getGenesisBlock = () => { 
  return new Block(0, "0", 1465154705, "my genesis block!!", "816534932c2b7154836da6afc367695e6337db8a921823784c14378abed4f7d7"); 
}; 
var blockchain = [getGenesisBlock()]; 
var initHttpServer = () => { 
  var app = express(); 
  app.use(bodyParser.json()); 
  app.get('/blocks', (req, res) => res.send(JSON.stringify(blockchain))); 
  app.post('/mineBlock', (req, res) => { 
    var newBlock = generateNextBlock(req.body.data); 
    addBlock(newBlock); 
    broadcast(responseLatestMsg()); 
    console.log('block added: ' + JSON.stringify(newBlock)); 
    res.send(); 
  }); 
  app.get('/peers', (req, res) => { 
    res.send(sockets.map(s => s._socket.remoteAddress + ':' + s._socket.remotePort)); 
  }); 
  app.post('/addPeer', (req, res) => { 
    connectToPeers([req.body.peer]); 
    res.send(); 
  }); 
  app.listen(http_port, () => console.log('Listening http on port: ' + http_port)); 
}; 
var initP2PServer = () => { 
  var server = new WebSocket.Server({port: p2p_port}); 
  server.on('connection', ws => initConnection(ws)); 
  console.log('listening websocket p2p port on: ' + p2p_port); 
}; 
var initConnection = (ws) => { 
  sockets.push(ws); 
  initMessageHandler(ws); 
  initErrorHandler(ws); 
  write(ws, queryChainLengthMsg()); 
}; 
var initMessageHandler = (ws) => { 
  ws.on('message', (data) => { 
    var message = JSON.parse(data); 
    console.log('Received message' + JSON.stringify(message)); 
    switch (message.type) { 
      case MessageType.QUERY_LATEST: 
        write(ws, responseLatestMsg()); 
        break; 
      case MessageType.QUERY_ALL: 
        write(ws, responseChainMsg()); 
        break; 
      case MessageType.RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN: 
        handleBlockchainResponse(message); 
        break; 
    } 
  }); 
}; 
var initErrorHandler = (ws) => { 
  var closeConnection = (ws) => { 
    console.log('connection failed to peer: ' + ws.url); 
    sockets.splice(sockets.indexOf(ws), 1); 
  }; 
  ws.on('close', () => closeConnection(ws)); 
  ws.on('error', () => closeConnection(ws)); 
}; 
var generateNextBlock = (blockData) => { 
  var previousBlock = getLatestBlock(); 
  var nextIndex = previousBlock.index + 1; 
  var nextTimestamp = new Date().getTime() / 1000; 
  var nextHash = calculateHash(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData); 
  return new Block(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData, nextHash); 
}; 
var calculateHashForBlock = (block) => { 
  return calculateHash(block.index, block.previousHash, block.timestamp, block.data); 
}; 
var calculateHash = (index, previousHash, timestamp, data) => { 
  return CryptoJS.SHA256(index + previousHash + timestamp + data).toString(); 
}; 
var addBlock = (newBlock) => { 
  if (isValidNewBlock(newBlock, getLatestBlock())) { 
    blockchain.push(newBlock); 
  } 
}; 
var isValidNewBlock = (newBlock, previousBlock) => { 
  if (previousBlock.index + 1 !== newBlock.index) { 
    console.log('invalid index'); 
    return false; 
  } else if (previousBlock.hash !== newBlock.previousHash) { 
    console.log('invalid previoushash'); 
    return false; 
  } else if (calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) !== newBlock.hash) { 
    console.log(typeof (newBlock.hash) + ' ' + typeof calculateHashForBlock(newBlock)); 
    console.log('invalid hash: ' + calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) + ' ' + newBlock.hash); 
    return false; 
  } 
  return true; 
}; 
var connectToPeers = (newPeers) => { 
  newPeers.forEach((peer) => { 
    var ws = new WebSocket(peer); 
    ws.on('open', () => initConnection(ws)); 
    ws.on('error', () => { 
      console.log('connection failed') 
    }); 
  }); 
}; 
var handleBlockchainResponse = (message) => { 
  var receivedBlocks = JSON.parse(message.data).sort((b1, b2) => (b1.index - b2.index)); 
  var latestBlockReceived = receivedBlocks[receivedBlocks.length - 1]; 
  var latestBlockHeld = getLatestBlock(); 
  if (latestBlockReceived.index > latestBlockHeld.index) { 
    console.log('blockchain possibly behind. We got: ' + latestBlockHeld.index + ' Peer got: ' + latestBlockReceived.index); 
    if (latestBlockHeld.hash === latestBlockReceived.previousHash) { 
      console.log("We can append the received block to our chain"); 
      blockchain.push(latestBlockReceived); 
      broadcast(responseLatestMsg()); 
    } else if (receivedBlocks.length === 1) { 
      console.log("We have to query the chain from our peer"); 
      broadcast(queryAllMsg()); 
    } else { 
      console.log("Received blockchain is longer than current blockchain"); 
      replaceChain(receivedBlocks); 
    } 
  } else { 
    console.log('received blockchain is not longer than received blockchain. Do nothing'); 
  } 
}; 
var replaceChain = (newBlocks) => { 
  if (isValidChain(newBlocks) && newBlocks.length > blockchain.length) { 
    console.log('Received blockchain is valid. Replacing current blockchain with received blockchain'); 
    blockchain = newBlocks; 
    broadcast(responseLatestMsg()); 
  } else { 
    console.log('Received blockchain invalid'); 
  } 
}; 
var isValidChain = (blockchainToValidate) => { 
  if (JSON.stringify(blockchainToValidate[0]) !== JSON.stringify(getGenesisBlock())) { 
    return false; 
  } 
  var tempBlocks = [blockchainToValidate[0]]; 
  for (var i = 1; i < blockchainToValidate.length; i++) { 
    if (isValidNewBlock(blockchainToValidate[i], tempBlocks[i - 1])) { 
      tempBlocks.push(blockchainToValidate[i]); 
    } else { 
      return false; 
    } 
  } 
  return true; 
}; 
var getLatestBlock = () => blockchain[blockchain.length - 1]; 
var queryChainLengthMsg = () => ({'type': MessageType.QUERY_LATEST}); 
var queryAllMsg = () => ({'type': MessageType.QUERY_ALL}); 
var responseChainMsg = () =>({ 
  'type': MessageType.RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN, 'data': JSON.stringify(blockchain) 
}); 
var responseLatestMsg = () => ({ 
  'type': MessageType.RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN, 
  'data': JSON.stringify([getLatestBlock()]) 
}); 
var write = (ws, message) => ws.send(JSON.stringify(message)); 
var broadcast = (message) => sockets.forEach(socket => write(socket, message)); 
connectToPeers(initialPeers); 
initHttpServer(); 
initP2PServer(); 

总结

以上所述是小编给大家介绍的200行代码实现blockchain 区块链实例详解,希望对大家有所帮助,如果大家有任何疑问请给我留言,小编会及时回复大家的。在此也非常感谢大家对编程小技巧网站的支持!

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