CentOS6.5环境安装nginx服务器及负载均衡配置操作详解

本文实例讲述了CentOS6.5环境安装nginx服务器及负载均衡配置操作。分享给大家供大家参考,具体如下:

1、下载PCRE, 是一个用C语言编写的正则表达式函数库

[root@localhost pcre-8.36]# cd /tmp/download/
[root@localhost download]# wget http://nchc.dl.sourceforge.net/project/pcre/pcre/8.37/pcre-8.37.tar.gz
[root@localhost download]# tar zxvf pcre-8.36.tar.gz

2、下载zlib库

[root@localhost pcre-8.36]# cd /tmp/download/
[root@localhost download]# wget http://ncu.dl.sourceforge.net/project/libpng/zlib/1.2.8/zlib-1.2.8.tar.gz
[root@localhost download]# tar -zxvf zlib-1.2.8.tar.gz cd zlib-1.2.8

4、下载SSL

[root@localhost zlib-1.2.8]# cd ..
[root@localhost download]# wget http://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-1.0.1p.tar.gz
[root@localhost download]# cd openssl-1.0.1c
[root@localhost openssl-1.0.1c]# tar -zxvf openssl-1.0.1c.tar.gz

5、下载nginx

[root@localhost download]# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.2.8.tar.gz
[root@localhost download]# tar -zxvf nginx-1.2.8.tar.gz

6、安装

[root@localhost download]mv pcre-8.36 /usr/local/
[root@localhost download]mv zlib-1.2.8 /usr/local/
[root@localhost download]mv openssl-1.0.1c /usr/local/
[root@localhost download]mv nginx-1.2.8 /usr/local/
[root@localhost download]cd /usr/local/
[root@localhost local]# cd pcre-8.36
[root@localhost pcre-8.36]# ./configure&&make&&make install
[root@localhost pcre-8.36] cd ../zlib-1.2.8
[root@localhost zlib-1.2.8]# ./configure && make && make install
[root@localhost zlib-1.2.8]# cd ../openssl-1.0.1c
[root@localhost openssl-1.0.1c]# ./config && make && make install
[root@localhost openssl-1.0.1c]# cd ../nginx-1.2.8
[root@localhost nginx-1.2.8]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx && make && make install

7、启动nginx

[root@localhost nginx]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

8、测试

在确保可以连接到服务器的电脑上,浏览器输入装了nginx的机器的ip地址,会看到Welcome to nginx!的提示说明安装配配置成功了。

9、设置开机自动启动(shell脚本处理)

[root@localhost logs]# vi /etc/init.d/nginx

添加以下shell脚本。

#!/bin/bash
# nginx Startup script for the Nginx HTTP Server
# it is v.0.0.2 version.
# chkconfig: - 85 15
# description: Nginx is a high-performance web and proxy server.
#       It has a lot of features, but it's not for everyone.
# processname: nginx
# pidfile: /var/run/nginx.pid
# config: /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
nginxd=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx
nginx_config=/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
nginx_pid=/var/run/nginx.pid
RETVAL=0
prog="nginx"
# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
# Source networking configuration.
. /etc/sysconfig/network
# Check that networking is up.
[ ${NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0
[ -x $nginxd ] || exit 0
# Start nginx daemons functions.
start() {
if [ -e $nginx_pid ];then
  echo "nginx already running...."
  exit 1
fi
  echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
  daemon $nginxd -c ${nginx_config}
  RETVAL=$?
  echo
  [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/nginx
  return $RETVAL
}
# Stop nginx daemons functions.
stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc $nginxd
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && rm -f /var/lock/subsys/nginx /var/run/nginx.pid
}
# reload nginx service functions.
reload() {
  echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
  #kill -HUP `cat ${nginx_pid}`
  killproc $nginxd -HUP
  RETVAL=$?
  echo
}
# See how we were called.
case "$1" in
start)
    start
    ;;
stop)
    stop
    ;;
reload)
    reload
    ;;
restart)
    stop
    start
    ;;
status)
    status $prog
    RETVAL=$?
    ;;
*)
    echo $"Usage: $prog {start|stop|restart|reload|status|help}"
    exit 1
esac
exit $RETVAL

保存后,设置权限让所有人可以操作。

[root@localhost ~]# chmod a+x /etc/init.d/nginx
[root@localhost logs]# /etc/init.d/nginx status
nginx (pid 2417 2416) is running...
[root@localhost logs]# /etc/init.d/nginx stop
Stopping nginx: [ OK ]
[root@localhost logs]# /etc/init.d/nginx start
Starting nginx: [ OK ]
[root@localhost logs]# /etc/init.d/nginx status
nginx (pid 2454 2452) is running...
[root@localhost ~]# vi /etc/rc.local

添加:

/etc/init.d/nginx start

重启电脑就会生效。

注意:脚本里面关于启动目录的,如果你的安装地址不一样,要进行修改。

负载均衡配置:

现有两部服务器:

192.168.137.197     (按照以上操作安装有nginx,作为转发机,虚拟机)
192.168.137.33     (无安装nginx,运行有测试用的web工程,虚拟机)
10.10.33.59    (无安装nginx,运行有测试用的web工程,本地电脑地址)
,运行有测试用的web工程
127.0.0.1 web_app

[root@a conf]# vi /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

配置如下展示:

worker_processes 8;
pid /usr/local/nginx/nginx.pid;
worker_rlimit_nofile 102400;
events
{
use epoll;
worker_connections 102400;
}
http
{
 include    mime.types;
 default_type application/octet-stream;
 fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
 charset utf-8;
 server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
 client_header_buffer_size 4k;
 large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
 client_max_body_size 300m;
 sendfile on;
 tcp_nopush   on;
 keepalive_timeout 60;
 tcp_nodelay on;
 client_body_buffer_size 512k;
 proxy_connect_timeout  5;
 proxy_read_timeout    60;
 proxy_send_timeout    5;
 proxy_buffer_size    16k;
 proxy_buffers      4 64k;
 proxy_busy_buffers_size 128k;
 proxy_temp_file_write_size 128k;
 gzip on;
 gzip_min_length 1k;
 gzip_buffers   4 16k;
 gzip_http_version 1.1;
 gzip_comp_level 2;
 gzip_types    text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
 gzip_vary on;
###2012-12-19 change nginx logs
log_format main '$http_x_forwarded_for - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
       '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
       '"$http_user_agent" $request_time $remote_addr';
upstream web_app {
server 192.168.137.197:8080 weight=1 max_fails=2 fail_timeout=30s;
server 192.168.137.33:8080 weight=1 max_fails=2 fail_timeout=30s;
server 10.10.33.59:8080 weight=1 max_fails=2 fail_timeout=30s;
}
####chinaapp.sinaapp.com
server {
  listen 80;
  server_name chinaapp.sinaapp.com;
  index index.jsp index.html index.htm;
  #发布目录/data/www
  root /data/www;
  location /
  {
  proxy_next_upstream http_502 http_504 error timeout invalid_header;
  proxy_set_header Host $host;
  proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
  proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
  proxy_pass http://web_app;
  expires   3d;
  }
 }
}

设置host:

[root@a conf]# vi /etc/hosts

添加hosts:

127.0.0.1 web_app

启动nginx

[root@localhost nginx]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

启动三部服务器的web应用:

在192.168.137.197执行指令:

[root@a PROGRAM]# curl "http://web_app/index.jsp"

测试结果如下:

常见问题及解决办法:

1、安装PCRE时提示configure: error: You need a C++ compiler for C++ support.

原因是没有安装c++编译器,采用下面的命令安装:

[root@localhost pcre-8.37]# yum install -y gcc gcc-c++

2、启动nginx失败

[root@localhost nginx]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx: error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

原因是64bit的系统,但是默认取了/usr/local/lib里面的包

检查方法:

[root@localhost nginx]# cd /usr/local/
[root@localhost local]# ls /lib64/ |grep pcre
libpcre.so.0
libpcre.so.0.0.1
[root@localhost local]# ls /lib/ |grep pcre

说明缺失的包在lib64

设置软连接来解决:

[root@localhost local]# ln -s /lib64/libpcre.so.0.0.1 /lib64/libpcre.so.1
[root@localhost local]# cd nginx
[root@localhost nginx]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

3、启动报错:

报错:nginx: [emerg] bind() to 0.0.0.0:80 failed (98: Address already in use)

解决办法:sudo fuser -k 80/tcp

端口被占用,关闭占用端口

希望本文所述对大家CentOS服务器配置有所帮助。

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